Columbus was the first European who landed on the Island on October 27th, 1492 near Guardalavaca beach, not far from the present city of Holguin. In 1511 Diego Velasquez subjugated the local citizens of the island, built Baracoa fort and became a first Spanish governor of Cuba. By 1514 seven settlements were founded there. In 1515 the capital of the colony was Santiago de Cuba city. The colonization took place in the fight against the indigenous population of the island-Taino Indians, who formed 75% of the population.
After the restful and a long colonization period Cuba started a fight for independence from Spain.
• In 1823 the first revolt for independence was quashed.
• In 1868 a decade war for independence of Cuba was begun; the rebels were supported by the neighboring United States. The most active military actions were in 1872—1873, but then the rebels were fighting only in eastern provinces.
• In 1895 Cuba patriots led by Jose Marti were landed on Cuba. This event was a starting point of a new war with the Spaniards, during which Cubans got the control over the whole territory of the island, except for major cities.
• In 1898 the United States started the war with Spain in which they prevailed and Cuba became dependent on the United States.
• In 1933 due to the coup the revolutionaries led by sergeant Fulgencio Batista overthrow Gerardo Machadr and established a democratic regime.
• In 1952 Batista carried out a coup d'etat and established a personal dictatorship.
• The group of revolutionaries led by Fidel Castro tried to seize the Moncada Barracks, but the attempt was unsuccessful, and the participants were arrested and prisoned. This event was a starting point of Cuban Revolution. In 1955, Fidel and his fellow soldier-revolutionaries were pardoned, and in 1956 a new group of revolutionaries landed from the yacht "Granma" on the east of the island and began military operations against the Batista government.
• On January 1st, 1959 Batista escaped from Cuba. At that moment the rebel forces occupied the city of Santa Clara in the center of the island and controlled large eastern areas of land; although the capital wasn’t afraid of danger and Batista controlled the significant military forces. Due to the conditions resulted from Batista escape, on January 8th the rebels column entered Havana where was welcomed with national hurrahing.
As the result of a victory the Cuban government became of a “left” orientation led by Fidel Castro. Sometime later after the Caribbean crisis and the Soviet Union intervention the Cuban government started formation of socialism. Governing and the only permitted party in the country was the Communist Party of Cuba.